is a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of atask. When a word such as blue, green, red, etc. is printedin a color differing from the color expressed by the word'ssemantic meaning (e.g. the word "red" printed in blue ink),a delay occurs in the processing of the word's color,leading to slower test reaction times and an increase inmistakes.
a research design based on selecting representative groupswho vary on a particular characteristic; when thecharacteristic is age, this design provides a means ofmaking developmental comparisons.